Pharmacogenetics and personalized medicine

For all, we need medicine, even if you only go for Tijuana dental crowns you may need some anti-inflammatory. Medications such as aspirin, antidepressants or morphine have different effects depending on the patient’s genetics.

Pharmacogenetics is the part of the genetic study that is dedicated to investigating the effects of medications in the organism and its genetic origin. And is that medications such as aspirin, antidepressants or morphine have different effects depending on the patient’s genetics. Thus, pharmacogenetics is a step towards personalized medicine.

In fact, according to data from the US Office of Clinical Pharmacology, more than 25% of drugs in that country have genetic information available on their labels. This way doctors can adjust their prescription to the patient’s genome.

More than 25% of drugs in the United States have genetic information available on their labels
In this sense, a pharmacogenetic test has been developed that studies more than 40 medications and their consequences in the organism according to the genetics of each individual. With this test, the patient can know how an aspirin affects him and how the body can react to specific medications in chemotherapy or psychiatry treatments, among others. Also, the test reveals the level of toxicity of the drug in the body, its effectiveness or the level of the dose that is needed.

There are some medications where the genetic study is more than advisable. The drug widely used in oncological treatments can be especially toxic in patients with deficiency in the enzyme dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, something that can be detected with a simple genetic analysis.

Scientific advances in the field of genetics have been enormous in recent years and this has allowed having a greater knowledge about the influence of genes. In fact, it is estimated that only 3% of genetic information can be interpreted, as indicated by this startup. Personalized medicine will be a reality that will advance as the investigation of genetics progresses.

The effectiveness of the medications, as well as their effects, changes according to the individual who consumes them. According to the results of a study, the medications that are consumed have a range of effects that vary between 25 and 60%. This goes to show that pharmacology, just as medicine is doing in general, must be adapted to each patient.

The new ally of traditional Chinese medicine

The combination of different research or techniques is something that helps medicine to improve from dental veneers in Tijuana to more complicated techniques. Traditional Chinese medicine seeks the benefits of artificial intelligence to combine ancient wisdom with modernity.

Although integration is still underway, it is hoped that with this technology, doctors will be able to study different diseases and observe the possible reactions that patients present with the different techniques of ancient Chinese science.

This allows to accelerate the learning of the doctors and to reduce to a large extent the possible side effects that the different treatments can cause, since the result of these can be affected by external factors such as climate, altitude, among others.

It is also thought to implement other technological advances such as the cloud and big data, which will allow knowledge to be shared in this science and offer more options than those already on the market.

Traditional Chinese medicine is integrated with the knowledge of different regions such as Tibet, Mongolia, Miao, and among these, there are different techniques such as acupuncture, herbal and moxibustion, which involves burning certain herbs in the skin, in addition to heat massage or cold, among others.

Now, thanks to technology, traditional medicines have been modified to look for more concrete and effective results, to check their effectiveness and possible risks.

These actions improve the tradition and allow modern medicine to spread the philosophy it offers, he said.

With the help of science and technology such as artificial intelligence, large volumes of computer data, etc., the thoughts of traditional Chinese medicine and the techniques of this can be extended and influenced globally, and alleviate the pain of all people.

The specialists comment that although nowadays in the pharmacies it is possible to acquire products that are used in this knowledge, with the passage of time their philosophy has been lost much, like the Confucian orientation that was characteristic of this.

However, he considered that the introduction of digitalization in traditional Chinese medicine can rescue his millenary philosophy.

Traditional Chinese medicine has not been eliminated, but due to history, cultural upheavals, social development, and other reasons, modern Chinese medicine has lost many of the thoughts or experience of the ancients.

Doubts about Pregnancy and breast cancer

There are medical treatments that can give us a bit of fear like  Tijuana dental veneers but nothing compares to the fear of having breast cancer and being pregnant at the same time. Although the incidence of this tumor is currently low, it is diagnosed in one of every 3,000 pregnant women, each time in the consultations more cases are seen due to the delay in maternity.

A reality that generates great uncertainty among pregnant women, that face an unexpected reality. Cancer and pregnancy are two realities that are hard to relate mentally because the emotion and joy of pregnancy are joined by fear and distrust generated by a diagnosis of breast cancer. Even so, there are encouraging data.

Not only the incidence of breast cancer is low, but their survival rates are high thanks to screening programs and progress in treatments. Some programs that together with the knowledge of the risk factors allow an early diagnosis. The most important thing is to go quickly to a multidisciplinary unit of cancer and pregnancy because it is essential to take care of the baby at the same time that cancer is treated. Therefore, all professionals involved in breast cancer and in the management of pregnancy (medical oncologists, radiologists, breast surgeons, neonatologists, obstetricians and breast nurses as well as support groups) should know perfectly the specific case to look for the better treatment for both.

An early action that during pregnancy should be taken with special caution, and before any symptom or alteration in the breast, or just some worrying sensation, it is important to go to a Breast Unit. A diagnosis that is complicated because during pregnancy the breast undergoes hormonal changes typical of the state of the pregnant woman. However, it is advisable to go to the specialist so that it is he who confirms that the nodule is not serious.

But what do you do when the diagnosis is confirmed? The main doubts swirl around the safety of the fetus. It’s going to be OK? Is it necessary to interrupt the pregnancy? The options open, however, is not a medical indication, in fact, it is perfectly compatible to take care and maintain the safety of the baby and at the same time effectively treat cancer.

A specialized unit will coordinate the gestation process, the state in which the time is found and the subtype of breast cancer. Its control will make it possible to assess the different treatment options depending on the gestation period, the stage of the tumor, the type of cancer and the patient’s preferences. In this way, a personalized treatment will be planned, better adapted to each case.

Efficacy of antidepressants

In medicine sometimes not all treatments are as tangible as Mexico dental implants, some require more studies to know if they are working, such as antidepressants. A major study comparing several commonly used antidepressants concludes that all are more effective than placebo for the short-term treatment of acute depression in adults, with an effectiveness ranging from small to moderate for different medications.

The study includes the largest amount of unpublished data to date, and all data has been made available for free online.

It is estimated that 350 million people have depression worldwide (2.4 million in Spain). The economic burden only in the US has been estimated at more than 210,000 million dollars. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments are available, but due to inadequate resources, antidepressants are used more frequently than psychological interventions. However, there is considerable debate about its effectiveness.

As part of the study, the authors identified all double-blind randomized controlled trials comparing antidepressants with placebo, or with other antidepressants for the acute treatment for 8 weeks of major depression in adults 18 years of age or older.

The authors then contacted pharmaceutical companies, original study authors and regulatory agencies to supplement incomplete reports of the original documents or provide data for unpublished studies. The primary outcomes were efficacy number of patients who responded to treatment, that is, they had a reduction in depressive symptoms of 50% or more on a rating scale validated for 8 weeks and acceptability which is the proportion of patients who withdrew of the study for some reason a week.

The majority of patients had moderate to severe depression. All 21 antidepressants were more effective than placebo, and only one drug (clomipramine) was less acceptable than placebo.

Some antidepressants were more effective than others. In the first group, agomelatine, amitriptyline, escitalopram, mirtazapine, paroxetine, venlafaxine and vortioxetine and, in the second group, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, reboxetine and trazodone, the least effective.

Most of the most effective antidepressants are now out of patent and available in generic form. Antidepressants also differ in terms of acceptability, with agomelatine, citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, sertraline, and vortioxetine being the most tolerable, and amitriptyline, clomipramine, duloxetine, fluvoxamine, reboxetine, trazodone, and Venlafaxine are the least tolerable.

When medicine minimizes women

The Science of Difference strives to recognize the differences between men and women when it comes to getting sick and promoting an understanding of the body of the older woman that has been the case until now.

There are factors that make a medical treatment like Dental implants in Mexico work better in some patients than in others: genetics, environmental causes and also the sex of the patient, that is, whether it is male or female. However, these differences in the sickness of men and women have often been forgotten by medicine and health services. But the problem is even greater, and that is that women are also somehow invisible in science. Why are not female diseases investigated enough? How is it possible that even today, the body of the woman is not as studied as that of man?

The Science of Difference seeks to investigate and point out the biological and health distinctions between the sexes so that the quality of life of women improves as much as that of men. So far, medicine with a gender perspective has discovered, for example, that the symptoms of a myocardial infarction in women are different than in men, and by their ignorance, they die 33% more than they do. Or those women are more vulnerable to environmental chemicals and toxins; He also does not need the same dose of medication as a man because he metabolizes drugs differently.

To this is added a feminized economic disadvantage, low salaries, something that makes renting or the possibility of buying a house for single-family families very difficult. Access to housing is one of the greatest challenges faced by single-parent families with a woman at the helm. Rental rates are prohibitive for any family, and particularly for families with only one adult. This has as a consequence that, either housing is shared with a family of origin, or, in the case of migrant women without family support, they are forced to live in a room with their children.

Along with the labor and economic difficulties is also the fear of suffering a serious illness or an accident, even the idea of ​​death is more powerful in the case of single-parent families due to the absence of another reference figure.

Immunotherapy with breast cancer

Several doctors and dentists like Sanoviv Dental know the importance of performing treatments focused on a specific area of ​​the body while taking into account the whole body, since everything is internally connected, that is why the action of immunotherapy drugs on some tumors, such as lung or melanoma, are already changing the prognosis of the disease. However, this therapeutic strategy, which stimulates the patient’s immune system against cancer, still does not work as effectively in breast cancer. These are some of the unknowns to solve.

The pending accounts of immunotherapy with breast cancer

These results are not yet definitive in metastatic patients with triple-negative subtype (breast cancer that does not have any last generation treatment) that have been tested in monotherapy an immunotherapeutic antibody in a group of patients who previously received other therapies and another group treated only with chemotherapy.

I have my doubts that they reach that 20% response rate, as in other tumors, says the oncologist. He explains that monotherapy is not giving the expected results against phase II studies where the combination of immunotherapy and chemotherapy has successfully reached 40% of patients.

The future of breast immunotherapy could be in combination with chemotherapy.

But still cannot conclude because there are some unknowns in the air: will immunotherapy be more effective in combination with chemotherapy/radiation therapy in breast cancer than in monotherapy? How can we select patients who will respond to immunotherapy, with other biomarkers? Is it better to use immunotherapy in the first line of treatment? The investigation will reveal them.

Breast cancer, a tumor with poor immunogenic response
What is clear is that breast cancer is very heterogeneous. Little has to do with the three major subtypes: the hormone receptor-positive tumors, the negative triples. Three different diseases, with different forecasts and treatments.

Besides, breast tumors are also different concerning their immunogenicity or faculty to warn the immune system and go behind lung or melanoma tumors.

But among them, the negative tripe is the one with the most capacity to activate the body’s defenses because it has more genetic mutations, which makes it more receptive to future target treatments and immunotherapy.

Therefore, it is in this type of cancer that immunotherapy research is focused, although there are also ongoing studies on positive hormone receptor tumors.

Breastfeeding and breast cancer

According to doctors and dentists like Samaritan Dental know that to have a healthy body as a healthy and robust tooth, it is essential to be well nourished, now a report from UNICEF emphasizes that breastfeeding from the minute zero is not only good
for the baby, it is also for the health of the mother.

Improve breastfeeding in the world for all babies
Create adequate and positive environments for breastfeeding. Measures such as drafting laws that guarantee that paternity permits and being able to breastfeed at work are critical. Also, hospitals and health experts inform, allow and facilitate breastfeeding after delivery. In Spain, every day is more common than in health centers after giving birth, and the midwife helps the new mother to breastfeed. The rite is usually born, put the baby skin to skin and teach the newborn and mother to mate, something that should always happen, but it does not occur on all sides, as explained by UNICEF and reiterated a few weeks ago the World Health Organization. Health. Experts point out that there must also be more restrictions on the marketing of artificial milk.

The father’s support in breastfeeding. UNICEF emphasizes that husbands and couples cannot underestimate this practice, so their involvement in the process is necessary.

Breastfeeding is not only good for babies born full-term. The organization emphasizes that breastfeeding from birth would help all babies. This organization, together with the WHO, executed a 10-step guide last month in which it states: The original guidelines were aimed at the ideal birth, to babies born at term (in the 39th week of gestation). In contrast, these new indications are also directed to premature babies, underweight babies or sick people. For example, in Spain, it would improve the health of many newborns. Each year about 29,000 children are premature, that is, before week 37, and represent 75% of hospital admissions in neonates, according to the latest data offered by the Spanish Society of Neonatology. In Europe, there are 500,000 who do it annually.

Experts who support difficulties before breastfeeding. It is known that there is no right or lousy breast milk, but many times some mothers find themselves with a wall when breastfeeding their little ones. Problems related to hooking, stress, poor performance, among others. UNICEF makes a complaint to the countries to make specialized assistance available to women in breastfeeding to help cope with possible complications.

Unless medically indicated, never give a newborn a liquid other than breast milk.

That mother and son are together from zero and 24 hours. A technique very used after childbirth and that involves placing the newborn on the chest of one of their parents. The benefits of skin with skin or kangaroo method are many. It is a method that does not need technology, but it is of great help, especially for premature children (born with less than 37 weeks) or who are born with low weight, the authors say, concluded the study 20 years analyzing the kangaroo method. Traditional care, Besides, to be effective, it also requires that the mother breastfeed her child whenever possible and that a strict follow-up of both is carried out at least during the first year of life. This method can lower the number of premature babies who die.

Breast and prostate cancer

Just as we constantly go with our  affordable dentist in mexico to have the best oral health, specialists advise routine checkups and diagnostic tests to detect any presence of cancer in time.

The Dominican Republic has a high incidence of cancer, with breast cancer being the number one among women and prostate cancer being the first in men.

In the second place among the females is cervical cancer, which according to the oncologist, is a shame because it is preventable with an effective prevention and education campaign.

Other types of cancer that also have incidence among the population are the lung and primary malignancies of unknown origin, and in all of them, the guarantee of achieving higher rates of cure is in the early diagnosis.

The specialist referred to the issue during an interview before the official launch in the country of novel tumor markers that allow diagnosing the risk of prostate, lung and ovarian cancer, as well as primary malignancies of unknown origin, through a blood test.

It was explained that these are very innovative and non-invasive tumor markers that will help physicians to find a possible malignancy in less time, as well as to avoid unnecessary explorations that patients must currently undergo to determine whether or not they have cancer.

The specialists explained that the panels of specific, non-invasive markers are available in the central clinical laboratories of the country, through the Dominican company, which distributes them to Central America and the Caribbean.

They highlighted that these blood and urine tests are a great tool to detect cancer early in patients with a previous finding that suggests malignancy and that they should be biopsied for confirmation.

They indicated that these tests should be part of the routine checkup of women after the age of 25 and of all those who belong to one of the risk groups for each type of cancer, such as smoking patients over 55 years of age, or women over 40 with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer.

Diet and exercise behind breast cancer

Dentists such as EG Dental know that environmental factors, diet or lifestyle have a significant effect on people’s lives, both for good and evil as is the development of breast cancer, according to scientific evidence.

According to the epidemiological data of 2018, the incidence of breast cancer in Spain in about 26,000 women, which is approximately a new case of breast cancer every 20 minutes., Hence the need to delve into the biology of the disease. Thus, carcinogenesis has focused on the different presentations of the seminar: what factors, both internal and external, can trigger the proliferation of tumors. The knowledge of the mechanisms of appearance and the dynamic genomic changes of this disease is making it possible to identify tumor biomarkers. In other words, we can modify the natural history of the disease thanks to little knowledge and research.

On the other hand, the head of the Breast Pathology Unit has explained that hormone replacement therapy, which improves the quality of life of women with the climacteric syndrome, is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer if prolonged by more than two years. It has also referred to the consumption of phytoestrogens in the diet (isoflavones and lignans especially present in legumes and some grains) for its preventive effect against this disease.

Food and exercise

Regarding external or environmental factors, there are several, from diet to radiation, in which science has established an association with a higher probability of developing tumors. As explained, nutrition is emerging as one of the elements that can help prevent the onset of breast cancer.

The role of diet in breast cancer has been investigated, both by analyzing foods individually and by groups of foods or nutrients. It has been found that the consumption of alcohol increases the risk, as well as that of fat and, especially the saturated one, explains the doctor, who clarifies that, fortunately, many foods show a protective effect as the consumption of vegetables and grains rich in fiber. The results of this study indicate that the Mediterranean diet reduces the risk of breast cancer by 6% in postmenopausal women.

Concerning alcohol or tobacco, although traditionally they have not been considered causes of breast cancer, there is currently no doubt that both increases the risk of breast cancer in about 10% and physical exercise reduces the risk of breast cancer by 25%.

Breast cancer can also appear in men

Prevention is the best cure for all diseases, and many people are made e gastric sleeve Tijuana Mexico to avoid all the conditions that cause obesity, as well as early detection of breast cancer increases life expectancy.

Nationwide there are about 60 deaths from breast cancer in men, revealed the Public Health coordinator of the Puebla Delegation of the Mexican Institute of Social Security.

These cases can have their origin by not eating a healthy diet, little physical activity, alcoholism, smoking, and obesity, as well as little assistance with a doctor when a symptom is detected.

In this context, if a man detects something abnormal in his breast, he should go to the preventive medicine services so that a diagnosis is made, and if required, a mammogram will be performed.

In the case of women, the institute contemplates approximately 40 thousand mammograms per year, which aims to detect and treat early malignant tumors in the breasts of women between 40 and 69 years of age.

Each year the coverage radius is 30% of the female population; 10% in an age range of 40 to 49, and the other 20% in women between 50 to 69 years; This proportionality occurs because of the lower the risk of suffering an anomaly.

Risk factor’s

The risk factors can be: a history of a family member with breast cancer, age 40 or older, if the first menstrual period was before age 12, use hormonal contraceptives for more than ten years, have had their first child after 30 years, not breastfeeding and obesity.

Breast cancer is very aggressive, so early detection represents a high possibility of cure and thanks to campaigns has achieved a reduction in the death rate of 13%.

Regarding ionizing radiation using different means of radiodiagnosis, carcinogenesis is one of the risks of this type of waves, although the risk-benefit balance in favor of performing tests such as mammography is not discussed in the context diagnosis. In addition, the dose of radiation has decreased considerably with the implementation of digital mammograms and currently a typical exploration does not reach 4mSv, lower than in other explorations of extended use such as spine radiographs.

Endocrine disruptors

The meeting has also addressed the effects that substances that alter the metabolism and that are considered endocrine disruptors can have for breast cancer. This is the case of cadmium, whose main source of exposure is tobacco. Likewise, the possible risks of oral contraceptives or infertility treatments have been analyzed.